By Joanna Radwanska-Williams
The overall conception of language of Mikołaj Kruszweski (1851-1887) is, this ebook argues, a “lost paradigm” within the historical past of linguistics. the idea that of 'paradigm' is known in a extensively construed Kuhnian feel, and its applicability to linguistics as a technological know-how is tested. it's argued that Kruszewski's thought was once a covert paradigm in that his significant paintings, Ocerk nauki o jazyke ('An define of the technological know-how of Language', 1883), had the capability to be seminal within the background of linguistics, i.e. to accomplish the prestige of a 'classical text', or 'exemplar'. This capability was once now not learned simply because Kruszewski's impression used to be hindered by means of a number of historic components, together with his early demise and the simultaneous consolidation of the Neogrammarian paradigm, with its emphasis on phonology and language switch. The booklet examines the highbrow historical past of Kruszweski's suggestion, which was once rooted, partly, within the culture of British empiricism. It additionally discusses Kruszewski's dating to his instructor Jean Baudouin de Courtenay (1845-1929), his angle in the direction of the Neogrammarian circulation in linguistics, the ambivalent reception of his idea by means of his contemporaries, and the impact of his paintings at the linguistic thought of Roman Jakobson (1896-1982).
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Extra info for A Paradigm Lost: The linguistic thought of Mikołaj Kruszewski
He was appointed by the faculty council to the rank of a candidate for a faculty position without a professorial fellowship ("professorskij stipendjat bez soderžanija"). That is, he was able to enter the system through the back door by the force of his own determination. Having encouraged Kruszewski to come to Kazan, Baudouin was committed to help him become familiar with linguistics as a discipline in as short a time as possible. To this end, besides the lectures in Sanskrit and in Indo-European comparative grammar required by the university curriculum, Baudouin organized extracurricular courses in his own home, which took up 8-10 hours of his time a week (Baudouin 1888a:298).
Mill's conception of the integration of the deductive and inductive method is close to the modern view of the role of the hypothetico-deductive method in science. According to Mill, science proceeds by means of generalizations based on observation. Such a generalization is a hypothesis which can be tested against observed data. Deduction is used to predict the implications of the hypothesis, and new information can then be brought to bear on the confirmation or disconfirmation of the hypothesis.
The operative faculties of human knowledge. Association psycho logy seems most successful in its account of sense perception; the farther removed from sense perception, the more difficult it becomes to give an 20 A PARADIGM LOST account of the formation of complex ideas which would not be arbitrary in its analysis of the composition of the idea. It is on this ground that the associationist psychology of Wundt was challenged in the 20th century. The British empiricists, however, assumed the fundamental validity of the model, because the original premise of the model, the accessibility of the internal workings of the human mind to scientific study, was essential to their theory of knowledge.